MdDS Diagnostic Criteria Consensus document of the Classification Committee of the Bárány Society (PDF)

Ahn S, Gleghorn D, Doudican B, Fröhlich F, Cha YH. Transcranial Alternating Current Stimulation Reduces Network Hypersynchrony and Persistent Vertigo. Neuromodulation, 2021.

Cha YH, Ding L, Yuan H. Neuroimaging Markers of Mal de Débarquement Syndrome. Front Neurol 2021. Online ahead of print.

Hoppes C, Vernon M, Morrell R, Whitney S. Treatment of Mal de Debarquement Syndrome in a Computer-Assisted Rehabilitation Environment. Mil Med, 2021 Feb 19;usab077. 2021. Online ahead of print.


Beh SC, Chiang HS, Sanderson C. The Interconnections of Mal de Débarquement Syndrome and Vestibular Migraine. Laryngoscope, 2020.

Yakushin S, Zink R, Clark BC, Liu C. Readaptation Treatment of Mal de Debarquement Syndrome With a Virtual Reality App: A Pilot Study. Front Neurol 11:814, 2020.

Jeon, SH, Park, YH. Neural Correlates of Transient Mal de Debarquement Syndrome: Activation of Prefrontal and Deactivation of Cerebellar Networks Correlate With Neuropsychological Assessment. Front Neurol. 11:585, 2020. eCollection.

Memon SF, Khan AA, Mohiuddin O, Shahzeb, Memon A. Mal de Debarquement Syndrome: A Rare Entity. Cureus 12(2):e6837, 2020.

Saha, K, Cha, YH. Mal de Debarquement Syndrome. Semin Neurol. 40(1):160-164, 2020. epub ahead of print.


Cha YH, Gleghorn D, Doudican B. Occipital and cerebellar theta burst stimulation for Mal De Debarquement Syndrome. Otol Neurotol. 40:e928-e937, 2019.

Chen Y, Cha YH, Li C, Shou G, Gleghorn D, Ding L, Yuan H. Multimodal imaging of rTMS effect on brain network: a combined encephalogram and functional magnetic resonance imaging study. Brain Connect 9:311-321, 2019.

Mucci V, Canceri JM, Jacquemyn Y, Ombergen AV, Maes LK, Van de Heyning PH, Browne CJ. Pilot study on patients with Mal de Debarquement syndrome during pregnancy. Future Sci OA. 5:FSO377, 2019.

Mucci V, Sussetto M, Ranieri M, Cavuscens S, Perez Fornos A, Guinand N. The Mal de Débarquement Syndrome. Rev Med Suisse. 15:1737-1739. 2019. Review. French.

Schepermann A, Bardins S, Penkava J, Brandt T, Huppert D, Wuehr M. Approach to an experimental model of Mal de Debarquement Syndrome. J Neurol. 266:74-79, 2019.


Canceri JM, Brown R, Watson SR, Browne CJ. Examination of current treatments and symptom management strategies used by patients with Mal de Debarquement Syndrome. Front Neurol 2018 9:article 943, 2018.

Cha YH, Cui YY, Baloh RW. Comprehensive clinical profile of Mal de Debarquement Syndrome. Front Neurol 9:261, 2018.

Cha YH, Shou G, Gleghorn D, Doudican BC, Yuan H, Ding L. Electrophysiological signatures of intrinsic functional connectivity related to rTMS treatment for Mal de Debarquement Syndrome. Brain Topography 31:1047-1058, 2018.

Chen Y, Tang JH, Shou G, Gleghorn D, Doudican BC, Besio W, Cha YH, Ding L, Yuan H. Effect of body positions on EEG signals in Mal de Debarquement Syndrome. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc 2018:1931-1934, 2018.

Cohen B, Yakushin SB, Cho C. Hypothesis: The vestibular and cerebellar basis of the Mal de Debarquement Syndrome. Front Neurol 9:article 28, 2018.

Li C, Yuan H, Shou G, Cha YH, Sunderam S, Besio W, Ding L. Cortical statistical correlation tomography of EEG resting state networks. Front Neurosci 12:article 365, 2018.

Mucci V, Canceri JM, Brown R, Dai M, Yakushin SB, Watson S, Van Ombergen A, Jacquemyn Y, Fahey P, Van de Heyning PH, Wuyts F, Browne CJ. Mal de Debarquement Syndrome: A retrospective online questionnaire on the influences of gonadal hormones in relation to onset and symptom fluctuation. Front Neurol 9:362, 2018.

Mucci V, Canceri JM, Brown R, Dai M, Yakushin S, Watson S, Van Ombergen A, Topsakal V, Van de Heyning PH, Wuyts FL, Browne CJ. Mal de Debarquement Syndrome: a survey on subtypes, misdiagnoses, onset and associated psychological features. J Neurol 265:486-499, 2018.

Mucci V, Cha YH, Wuyts FL, Van Ombergen A. Perspective: stepping stones to unraveling the pathophysiology of Mal de Debarquement Syndrome with neuroimaging. Front Neurol, 9: 42, 2018.

Mucci V, Jacquemyn Y, Van Ombergen A, Van de Heyning PH, Browne CJ. A new theory on GABA and calcitonin gene-related peptide involvement in Mal de Debarquement Syndrome predisposition factors and pathophysiology. Med Hypotheses 120:128-134, 2018.

Mucci V, Perkisas T, Jillings SD, Van Rompaey V, Van Ombergen A, Fransen E, Vereeck L, Wuyts FL, Van de Heyning PH, Browne CJ. Sham-controlled study of optokinetic stimuli as treatment for Mal de Debarquement Syndrome. Front Neurol 9:887, 2018.

Schenk SM, Wagner JM, Miller JA, Lyons-White TM, Venn EC, April MD, Long B, Schauer SG, Oliver JJ. Treatment of Mal de Debarquement Syndrome in a deployed environment. Mil Med 183 e775-e778, 2018.

Shankar KN, Siddiqui JH. Mal de Debarquement Syndrome: a case report. Cureus 10:e3270, 2018.


Chen Y, Li C, Shou G, Urbano D, Cha YH, Ding L, Yuan H. Assessing rTMS effects in MdDS: Cross-modal comparison between resting state EEG and fMRI connectivity. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc 2017:1950-1953, 2017.

Dai M, Cohen B, Cho C, Shin S, Yakushin SB. Treatment of the Mal de Debarquement Syndrome: A 1-year follow-up. Front Neurol 8:175, 2017.

Ghavami Y, Haidar YM, Ziai KN, Moshtaghi O, Bhatt J, Lin HW, Djalilian HR. Management of mal de debarquement syndrome as vestibular migraines. Laryngoscope 127:1670-1675, 2017.

Livingstone DM, Smith KA, Lange B. Scuba diving and otology: a systematic review with recommendations on diagnosis, treatment and post-operative care. Diving Hyperb Med. 47:97-109. 2017. Review.

Staab JP, Eckhardt-Henn A, Horii A, Jacob R, Strupp M, Brandt T, Bronstein A. Diagnostic criteria for persistent postural-perceptual dizziness (PPPD): Consensus document of the committee for the Classification of vestibular Disorders of the Bárány Society. J Vestibular Res 27:191-208, 2017.

Yuan H, Shou G, Urbano D, Ding L, Cha YH. Resting state functional connectivity signature of treatment effects of rTMS in Mal de Debarquement Syndrome. Brain Connect 7:617-626, 2017.


Arroll M, Attree E, Cha YH, Dancey C. The relationship between symptom severity, stigma, illness intrusiveness and depression in Mal de Debarquement Syndrome. J Health Psychol 21:1339-1350, 2016.

Cha YH, Deblieck C, Wu AD. Double-blind sham-controlled crossover trial of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation for mal de debarquement syndrome. Otol Neurotol 37:805-812, 2016.

Cha YH, Urbano D, Pariseau N. Randomized single blind sham controlled trial of adjunctive home-based tDCS after rTMS for mal de debarquement syndrome: safety, efficacy, and participant satisfaction assessment. Brain Stimul 9:537-544, 2016.

Hain TC, Cherchi M. Mal de débarquement syndrome. Handbook Clin Neurol 137:391-395, 2016.

Shou G, Yuan H, Urbano D, Cha YH, Ding L. Optimizing rTMS treatment of a balance disorder with EEG neural synchrony and functional connectivity. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc 2016:53-56, 2016.

Van Ombergen A, Van Rompaey V, Maes LK, Van de Heyning PH, Wuyts FL. Mal de debarquement syndrome: a systematic review. J Neurol 263:843-854, 2016.

Van Ombergen A, Wuyts FL, Cha YH. Letter to the Editor: comment and erratum to “Mal de debarquement syndrome: a systematic review”. J Neurol 263:855-860, 2016.


Cha, YH. Mal de Debarquement Syndrome: new insights. Ann NY Acad Sci 1343:63-68, 2015.

Cha YH, Chakrapani, S. Voxel based morphometry alterations in mal de debarquement syndrome. PLoS One 10:e0135021, 2015.

Cohen B, Dai M, Smouha E, Cho C. Mal de débarquement syndrome. Neurol Clin Pract 5:369-370, 2015.

Edlow JA, Newman-Toker DE. Medical and nonstroke neurologic causes of acute, continuous vestibular symptoms. Neurol Clin 33:699-716, 2015. Review.

Liphart J. Use of sensory reweighting for a woman with persistent Mal de Debarquement: a case report. J Geriatr Phys Ther 38:96-103, 2015.

Nwagwu V, Patel R, Okudo J. Mal de debarquement syndrome: a rare entity – a case report and review of the literature. Case Rep Otolaryngol 2015:918475, 2015.

Pearce AJ, Davies CP, Major BP. Efficacy of neurostimulation to treat symptoms of Mal de Debarquement Syndrome. A preliminary study using repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation. J Neuropsychol 9:336-341, 2015.

Saha KC, Fife TD. Mal de débarquement syndrome: Review and proposed diagnostic criteria. Neurol Clin Pract 5:209-215, 2015.


Dai M, Cohen B, Smouha E, Cho C. Readaptation of the vestibulo-ocular reflex relieves the mal de debarquement syndrome. Front Neurol 5:1-6, 2014.

Ding L, Shou G, Yuan H, Urbano D, Cha YH. Lasting Modulation Effects of rTMS on Neural Activity and Connectivity as Revealed by Resting State EEG. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng 61:2070-2080, 2014

Halasy MP, Thibault CR. A case of persistent dizziness after travel. JAAPA 27:1-3, 2014.

Shou G, Yuan H, Urbano D, Cha YH, Ding L. Changes of symptom and EEG in mal de debarquement syndrome patients after repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation over bilateral prefrontal cortex: A pilot study. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc 2014:4294-4297, 2014.

Tal D, Wiener G, Shupak A. Mal de debarquement, motion sickness and the effect of an artificial horizon. J Vestib Res 24:17-23, 2014.

Wu H, Wang S, Hao W, Gao Z. Mal de debarquement: a case report. Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi 49:1035-1036, 2014. Chinese.


Cha YH, Cui Y. Rocking dizziness and headache: a two-way street. Cephalalgia 33:1160-1169, 2013.

Cha YH, Cui Y, and Baloh RW. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation for Mal de Debarquement Syndrome. Otol Neurotol 34:175-179, 2013.

Clark BC, Leporte A, Clark S, Hoffman RL, Quick A, Wilson TE, Thomas JS. Effects of persistent Mal de debarquement syndrome on balance, psychological traits, and motor cortex excitability. J Clin Neurosci 20:446-450, 2013.

Stoffregen TA, Chen FC, Varlet M, Alcantara C, Bardy BG. Getting your sea legs. PLoS ONE 8:e66949, 2013.


Bruetman JE, Senderovsky M, Martin C, Finn BC, Young P. Mal de débarquement, a challenge for the clinician. Medicina (B Aires) 72:356-357, 2012. Spanish.

Cha YH. Less common neuro-otologic disorders. Continuum Lifelong Learning in Neurol 18:1142-1157, 2012.

Cha YH, Chakrapani S, Craig A, and Baloh RW. Metabolic and functional connectivity changes in mal de debarquement syndrome. PloS ONE 7:e49560, 2012.

Jeong SH, Jung KY, Kim JM, Kim JS. Medial temporal activation in mal de debarquement syndrome revealed by standardized low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography. J Clin Neurol 8:238-240, 2012.

Macke A, LePorte A, Clark BC. Social, societal, and economic burden of mal de debarquement syndrome. J Neurol 259:1326-1330, 2012.

Petersen H. Seasickness. Laeknabladid 98:653-9, 2012. Review. Icelandic.


Cherchi M. Infrequent causes of disequilibrium in the adult. Otolaryngol Clin North Am 44:405-14, 2011.

Clark BC, Quick A. Exploring the pathophysiology of Mal de Debarquement. J Neurol 258:1166-1168, 2011.


McCandless CH, Balaban CD. Parabrachial nucleus neuronal responses to off-vertical axis rotation in macaques. Exp Brain Res 202:271-290, 2010.


Cha YH. Mal de Debarquement. Semin Neurol 29:520-527, 2009. Review.

Dai M, Raphan T, Cohen B. Adaptation of the angular vestibulo-ocular reflex to head movements in rotating frames of reference. Exp Brain Res 195:553-567, 2009.


Cha YH, Brodsky J, Ishiyama G, Sabatti C, Baloh RW. Clinical features and associated syndromes of mal de debarquement. J Neurol 255:1038-1044, 2008.

Dahlman J, Sjörs A, Ledin T, Falkmer T. Could sound be used as a strategy for reducing symptoms of perceived motion sickness? J Neuroeng Rehabil 5:35-43, 2008.

Parker DA, SJ Jennings. Mal de debarquement syndrome: Review of an unusual cause of dizziness. Audiolog Med 6:228-232, 2008.

2007 and prior

Moeller L, Lempert T. Mal de debarquement: pseudo-hallucinations from vestibular memory? J Neurol 254:813-815, 2007.

Yacovino DA, Gualtieri FJ. Mal de debarquement syndrome in modern life. Rev Neurol 43:568-570, 2006. Spanish.

DeFlorio PT, Silbergleit R. Mal de debarquement presenting in the emergency department. J Emerg Med 31:377-379, 2006.

Tal D, Domachevsky L, Bar R, Adir Y, Shupak A. Inner ear decompression sickness and mal de debarquement. Otol Neurotol 26:1204-1207, 2005.

Lewis RF. Frequency-specific mal de debarquement. Neurol 63:1983-1984, 2004.

Nachum Z, Shupak A, Letichevsky V, Ben-David J, Tal D, Tamir A, Talmon Y, Gordon CR, Luntz M. Mal de debarquement and posture: reduced reliance on vestibular and visual cues. Laryngoscope 114:581-586, 2004.

Dai M, Kunin M, Raphan T, Cohen B. The relation of motion sickness to the spatial-temporal properties of velocity storage. Exp Brain Res 151:173-189, 2003.

Teitelbaum P. Mal de Debarquement Syndrome: A Case Report. J Travel Med 9:51-52, 2002.

Gordon CR, Shupak A, Nachum Z. Mal de debarquement. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 126:805-806, 2000.

Hain TC, Hanna PA, Rheinberger MA. Mal de debarquement. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 125:615-620, 1999.

Rine RM, Schubert MC, Balkany TJ. Visual-vestibular habituation and balance training for motion sickness. Phys Ther 79:949-957, 1999.

Cohen H. Mild mal de debarquement after sailing. Ann N Y Acad Sci 781:598-600, 1996.

Gordon CR, Spitzer O, Doweck I, Melamed Y, Shupak A. Clinical features of mal de debarquement: adaptation and habituation to sea conditions. J Vestib Res 5:363-369, 1995.

Murphy TP. Mal de debarquement syndrome: a forgotten entity? Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 109:10-13, 1993.

Gordon CR, Spitzer O, Shupak A, Doweck I. Survey of mal de debarquement. British Med J 304:544, 1992.

Brown JJ, Baloh RW. Persistent mal de debarquement syndrome: a motion-induced subjective disorder of balance. Am J Otolaryngol 8:219-222, 1987.

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